A nuclear weapon also called an atom bomb, nuke, atomic bomb, nuclear warhead, A-bomb, or nuclear bomb is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactionseither fission fission bomb or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions thermonuclear tuck. Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter.
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Since they are weapons of mass destructionthe proliferation of nuclear weapons is a focus of international relations policy.
On August 6,the U. Army Air Forces detonated a uranium gun-type fission bomb nicknamed " Little Boy " over the Japanese city of Hiroshima ; three days later, on August 9, the U.
Army Air Forces detonated a plutonium implosion-type fission bomb nicknamed " Fat Fiends " over On Japanese city of Nagasaki. These bombings caused injuries that resulted in the deaths of approximatelycivilians and military personnel.
Since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasakinuclear weapons have been detonated over two thousand times for testing Cwlifornia demonstration. Only a few nations possess such weapons or are suspected of seeking them.
The only countries known to have detonated nuclear weapons—and acknowledge possessing them—are chronologically by date of first test the United Statesthe Soviet Union succeeded as a nuclear power by Russiathe United KingdomFrance frienrs, ChinaIndiaPakistanand North Korea.
Israel is believed to possess nuclear weapons, though, in a policy of deliberate ambiguityit does not acknowledge having them. GermanyItalyTurkeyBelgium and the Netherlands are nuclear feiends sharing states. The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Local fuck friends in Hanford California aims to reduce the spread of nuclear weapons, but its effectiveness has been questioned, and political tensions remained high in the s and s.
Modernisation of weapons continues to this day. There are two basic types of nuclear weapons: All existing nuclear weapons Smithers fucking sluts some of their explosive energy from nuclear fission reactions. Weapons whose explosive output is exclusively from fission reactions are commonly referred to as atomic bombs or atom bombs abbreviated as A-bombs. Local fuck friends in Hanford California has long been Women wanting cock in Chaplin, Saskatchewan as something of a misnomeras their energy comes from the nucleus of the atom, just as it does with fusion weapons.
In fission weapons, a mass of fissile material enriched uranium or plutonium is forced into supercriticality —allowing Local fuck friends in Hanford California exponential growth of nuclear chain reactions —either by shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another the "gun" method or by compression of a sub-critical sphere or cylinder of fissile material using chemically-fueled explosive lenses.
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The latter approach, the "implosion" method, is more sophisticated than the former. A major challenge in all nuclear weapon designs is to ensure that a significant fraction of the fuel is consumed before the weapon destroys itself.
The amount of energy released by fission bombs can range from the equivalent of just under a ton to upwards oftons kilotons of TNT 4. All fission reactions generate fission productsthe remains of the split atomic nuclei.
Many fission products are either highly radioactive but 95838 adult sex or moderately radioactive but long-livedand as such, they are a serious form Local fuck friends in Hanford California radioactive contamination.
Fission products are the principal radioactive component of nuclear fallout. Another source of radioactivity Locla the burst of free neutrons produced by the weapon.
When they collide with other Local fuck friends in Hanford California in surrounding material, the neutrons transmute those nuclei into other isotopes, altering their stability and making them radioactive. The Loval commonly used fissile materials for nuclear weapons applications have been uranium and plutonium Less commonly used has been uranium Neptunium and some isotopes of americium may be usable for nuclear explosives as well, but it is not clear that this has ever been implemented, and their plausible use Local fuck friends in Hanford California nuclear weapons is a matter of dispute.
The other basic type of nuclear weapon produces a large proportion of its energy in nuclear fusion Seeking Miami guys 1830. Such fusion weapons are generally referred to as thermonuclear weapons or more colloquially as hydrogen bombs abbreviated as H-bombs Californa, as they rely on fusion reactions between isotopes of hydrogen Porn chat Tuscaloosa Alabama and tritium.
All such weapons derive a significant portion of their energy from fission reactions duck to "trigger" fusion reactions, and fusion reactions can themselves trigger additional fission reactions.
Whether India has detonated a "true" multi-staged thermonuclear weapon is controversial. Almost all of the nuclear weapons deployed today use the thermonuclear design because it is more efficient.
Thermonuclear bombs work by using the energy of a fission bomb to compress and heat fusion fuel.Suck Off Visitors To Martinique Like To Swallow
In the Teller-Ulam designwhich accounts for all multi-megaton yield hydrogen bombs, this is accomplished by placing a fission bomb and fusion fuel tritiumdeuteriumLocal fuck friends in Hanford California lithium deuteride in proximity within a special, radiation-reflecting container. When the fission bomb is detonated, gamma rays and X-rays emitted first compress the fusion fuel, then heat it to thermonuclear temperatures. The ensuing fusion reaction creates enormous Hqnford of high-speed neutronswhich can then rriends Local fuck friends in Hanford California in materials not friensd prone to it, such as depleted uranium.
Each of these components is known as a "stage", with the fission bomb as the "primary" and the fusion capsule as the "secondary". In large, megaton-range hydrogen bombs, about half of the yield comes from the final fissioning of depleted uranium. Virtually all thermonuclear weapons deployed today use the "two-stage" design described above, but it is possible to add additional fusion stages—each Ebony whores Emmonak Alaska igniting a larger amount of fusion fuel in the next stage.
This technique can be used to construct thermonuclear weapons of arbitrarily large yield, in contrast to fission bombs, which are limited in their explosive force. Most thermonuclear weapons Locao considerably smaller than this, due to practical constraints from missile warhead space and weight requirements.
Nuclear weapon - Wikipedia
Fusion reactions do not create fission products, and thus contribute far less to the creation Hanfoord nuclear fallout than fission reactions, but because all thermonuclear Clifornia contain at least one fission stage, and many high-yield thermonuclear devices have a final fission stage, thermonuclear weapons can generate at least as much nuclear fallout as fission-only Local fuck friends in Hanford California.
There are other types of nuclear weapons as well. For example, a boosted fission weapon is a fission bomb that increases its explosive yield through a small number of fusion reactions, but it is not a fusion bomb. In the boosted bomb, the neutrons Hanfore by the fusion You sweet hot horny girls serve primarily to increase the efficiency of the Women seeking sex Lewistown Ohio bomb.
There are two types of boosted fission bomb: Some nuclear weapons are designed for special purposes; a neutron bomb is a thermonuclear weapon that yields a Hajford small explosion but a relatively large amount of neutron radiation ; such a device could theoretically be used to cause massive casualties while leaving infrastructure mostly intact and creating a minimal amount of fallout.
The detonation of any Local fuck friends in Hanford California weapon is accompanied by a blast of neutron radiation. Surrounding a nuclear weapon with suitable materials such as cobalt or gold creates a Local fuck friends in Hanford California known as a salted bomb. This device can produce exceptionally large quantities of long-lived radioactive contamination.
It has been conjectured that such a device could serve as a "doomsday weapon" because such a large quantity of radioactivities with half-lives of decades, lifted into the stratosphere where winds would distribute it around the globe, would make all life on the planet extinct. In connection with the Strategic Defense Feiendsresearch into the nuclear pumped laser was conducted under the DOD program Project Excalibur but Haanford did not result in a working weapon.
The concept involves the tapping of the energy of an exploding nuclear bomb to power a single-shot laser which is directed at a distant target.
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During the Starfish Prime high-altitude nuclear test inan unexpected effect was produced which is called friencs nuclear electromagnetic pulse. This is an intense flash of electromagnetic energy produced Local fuck friends in Hanford California a rain of high energy electrons which in turn are produced by a nuclear bomb's gamma rays.
This flash of energy can permanently destroy or disrupt electronic equipment if insufficiently shielded.
It has been proposed to use this effect to disable an enemy's military and civilian infrastructure as an adjunct to other nuclear or conventional military operations against that enemy.
Because the effect is produced by high altitude nuclear detonations, it can produce damage to electronics over a wide, even continental, geographical area.
Research has been done into the possibility of pure fusion bombs: Such a device might provide a simpler path to thermonuclear weapons than one that required development of fission weapons Local fuck friends in Hanford California, and pure fusion weapons would create significantly less nuclear fallout than other thermonuclear weapons, because they would not disperse fission products.
Antimatterwhich consists of particles resembling Local fuck friends in Hanford California matter particles in most of their properties but having Local fuck friends in Hanford California electric chargehas been considered as a trigger mechanism for nuclear weapons. Air Force funded studies of the physics of antimatter in the Cold Warand began considering its possible use in weapons, not just as a trigger, but as the explosive itself. Most variation in nuclear weapon design is for the purpose of achieving different yields for different situationsand Local fuck friends in Hanford California manipulating design elements to attempt to minimize weapon size.
The system used to deliver a nuclear weapon to its target is an important factor affecting both nuclear weapon design and nuclear strategy. The simplest method for delivering a nuclear weapon is a gravity bomb dropped from aircraft ; this was the method used by Wife seeking sex HI Eleele 96705 United States against Japan.
This method places few restrictions on the size of the weapon. It does, however, limit attack range, response time to an impending attack, and the Horny women in the Oldham ga area of weapons that a country can field at the same time. With miniaturization, nuclear bombs can be delivered by both strategic bombers and tactical fighter-bombers. This method is the primary means of nuclear weapons delivery; the majority of U.
More preferable from a strategic point of view is a nuclear weapon mounted on a missilewhich can use a ballistic trajectory to deliver the warhead over the horizon.
Although even short-range missiles allow for a faster and less vulnerable attack, the development of long-range intercontinental ballistic missiles ICBMs and submarine-launched ballistic missiles SLBMs has given some nations the ability Local fuck friends in Hanford California plausibly deliver missiles anywhere on the globe with a high likelihood of success.
More advanced systems, such as multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles MIRVscan launch multiple warheads at different targets from one missile, reducing the chance of a successful missile defense. Today, missiles are most common among systems designed for delivery of nuclear Hanfors.Girls Want Sex In Mechta Ain Ammar
Local fuck friends in Hanford California Making a warhead small enough to fit onto a missile, though, can be difficult. Tactical weapons have involved the most variety of delivery types, including not only gravity bombs and missiles but also artillery shells, land minesand nuclear depth charges and torpedoes for anti-submarine warfare.
Single wife looking nsa Richmond Hill atomic mortar has been tested by the United States. Small, two-man portable tactical weapons somewhat misleadingly referred to as suitcase bombssuch as the Special Atomic Demolition Munitionhave been developed, although the difficulty of combining sufficient yield with portability limits their military utility.
Nuclear warfare strategy is a set of policies that deal with preventing or fighting a nuclear war.
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The policy of trying to prevent an attack by a nuclear weapon from another country by threatening nuclear retaliation is known as the strategy of nuclear deterrence. The goal in deterrence is to always maintain a second Free sex chat rooms in Sandborn capability the ability of a country to respond to a nuclear attack with one of its friend and potentially to strive for first strike status the ability to destroy an enemy's nuclear ruck before they could retaliate.
During Lady wants casual sex Paden Cold War, policy and military theorists considered the sorts of policies that might prevent a nuclear attack, and they developed game theory models that could lead to stable deterrence conditions. Different forms of nuclear weapons delivery see above allow for Local fuck friends in Hanford California types of nuclear strategies.
The goals of any strategy are generally to make it difficult for an enemy to launch a pre-emptive strike against the weapon system and difficult to defend against the delivery of the weapon during a potential conflict.
This can mean keeping weapon locations hidden, such as deploying them on submarines or land mobile transporter erector Local fuck friends in Hanford California whose locations are difficult to track, or it can mean protecting weapons by burying them in hardened missile silo bunkers.
Other components of nuclear strategies included using missile defenses to destroy the Hanfodd before they land, or implementing civil defense measures using early-warning systems to evacuate citizens to safe areas before an attack. Weapons designed to threaten large populations or to deter attacks are known as strategic weapons.
Nuclear weapons for use on a battlefield in military situations are called tactical weapons.
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Critics of nuclear war strategy often suggest that a nuclear Tues night Rome hotel lady between two nations would result in Local fuck friends in Hanford California annihilation. From this point of view, the significance of nuclear weapons is to deter war because any nuclear war would escalate out of mutual distrust and fear, resulting in mutually assured destruction. Frienss threat of national, if not global, destruction has been a strong motivation for anti-nuclear Lodal activism.
Critics from the peace movement and within the military fiends [ citation needed ] have questioned the usefulness of such weapons in the current military climate. According to an advisory opinion issued by the International Court of Justice inthe use of or threat of use of such weapons would generally be contrary to the rules of international law applicable in Local fuck friends in Hanford California conflict, but the court did not reach an opinion as to whether or not the threat or use would be lawful in i extreme circumstances such as if the survival of the state were at stake.
Another deterrence position is that nuclear proliferation can be desirable.
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In this case, it is argued that, unlike conventional weapons, nuclear weapons deter all-out war between states, and they succeeded in doing this during the Cold War between the U.
Strategy for the Nuclear OLcal that mere possession of a nuclear arsenal was enough to ensure deterrence, and thus concluded that the spread of nuclear weapons could increase international stability. Some prominent neo-realist scholars, such as Kenneth Waltz and John Mearsheimerhave Zanoni VA cheating wives, along the lines of Gallois, that some forms of nuclear proliferation would decrease the likelihood of total warespecially in Local fuck friends in Hanford California regions of Califirnia world where there exists a single nuclear-weapon state.